I dual boot Windows Vista Ultimate 64Bit and Windows 7 Ultimate 64Bit and today(4/28/2013) I ran Windows update on Both partitions and when restarting the Vista partition I ended up with a STOP 0x0000007B: INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE Blue Screen which is a problem with the disk or driver best I can find.
The Windows 7 partition worked fine so I tried running check disk from Win 7 against that drive letter for Vista and it found and repaired some problems but still crashed on reboot and would not create a new boot log to help with the troubleshooting.
After looking around some more and not finding the source of the problem I put in the OEM Vista disk and started it up with that, and then clicked on repair windows instillation.
See these links for directions.
After that run for a bit it finally came back with the source of the problem “A patch is preventing the system from starting”
And the Resolution was “Repair action: System Restore”
Thankfully I still had system restore enabled to fix the problem easily.
After the system restore was completed the system was able to boot into Vista again.
I still can not find a log file or trouble report that points at which Update(“Patch”) was causing the problem, there were 8 security updates that were important.
The log file for the startup troubleshooter can be found in %Windows%\System32\LogFiles\Srt and the file name is SrtTrail.txt . There it shows at the end what it says caused the problem.
Hope this helps someone.